Introduction: defining key notions

The characteristics of immigration to the USA
Immigration, to immigrate: to settle in a host, a foreign country
Emigration, to emigrate: to leave one's country of origin


Facteur répulsif:

Etat de droit:

Facteur attractif:

Front pionnier:

Révolution industrielle:

Société multiculturelle:

Frontière ouverte / fermée:


La raison de...

Emigrer / immigrer:

Qualifié / non qualifié:

Immigration de masse:

Main d'oeuvre:


The reasons for immigration Push factors (why they wanted to emigrate, to leave their country) Pull factors (why they were attracted to, immigrated to the USA)
Ex: living in a state which didn’t respect the rule of law (no one is above the law to prevent dictatorship, promote democracy and protect the rights of the people)
= political push factor
Ex: US booming economy with the frontier (newly-explored territory in the West) and the Industrial Revolution (shift from hand home-made to mass factory production)
= economic pull factor
The nature
Old Immigration New Immigration
1st wave of immigrants from Northern and Western Europe
from the 1840s to the 1880s
from a small immigration...
skilled, unskilled workers & farmers
2nd wave of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe
from the 1880s to 1920
...to a mass immigration
mostly unskilled labour (workforce)
The impact
Positive impact Negative impact
Successful integration :
self-made men (successful through hard work) climbing the social ladder
A multicultural society :
a cosmopolitan (many different ethnic communities) mosaic (living side by side, not mixing together) = a salad bowl not a melting pot (assimilation)
More discrimination, more prejudice (racism) against foreign immigrants.
More border control?
- officially open border: free movement of people for easy immigration
- their wish: closed border to prevent or restrict immigration