The facts

Definitions of key notions & vocabulary

Political regimes
monarchy: a political regime in which the head of state is a hereditary monarch.
absolute monarchy: when the monarch holds all powers and makes all decisions.
arbitrary power: when people in power make decisions without justifying them, so viewed as unfair by the people.
tyranny: when people in government abuse their power and oppress the people, don’t respect their rights.
parliamentary monarchy: when royal power is limited, controlled by the people represented in a parliament; the monarch is not above the law but must obey it.
republic: a political regime in which the head of state is elected by the people.
democracy: system of government based on the belief in freedom and equality, in which power is held by the people.
confederation: a loose association of states with a weak central government.
federation: a tight association of states with a strong central government.

Political powers
separation of powers: each power (legislative, executive and judicial) is held by a different player (person or institution) to prevent abuse of power.
sovereignty of the people: the nation, the people is the basis of all legitimate power.
representation of the people: when the people take part in political decisions thanks to elected representatives.

Political crisis
revolution: popular uprising leading to drastic political and social change ; based on the right to rebel: if a government doesn’t respect people’s rights, they are justified in overthrowing it.
civil war: a war between different groups in one country to take control of the government or become independent.
colony: an overseas territory controlled and governed by a foreign power.
state: a independent, free territory with its own government.

Religious tensions
Anglican, Anglicanism: mild form of Protestantism, predominant in England where the monarch is the head of the Church of England.
Catholic, Catholicism: also called Roman catholic, papist, Popery by Protestants, as the Pope in Rome is the head of the Catholic Church.

Economic tensions
fiscal policy : more revenuefor the government means the people pay more taxes.
trade monopoly: government commercial policy which allows a company to be the only one to trade goods with its colonies.