A CHANGING WORLD • • The notions

Definitions of key notions & vocabulary

Transitions
The demographic transition: shift from a high to a low natality and mortality. Before & after the DT, population growth is small -or negative, whereas during the DT population growth is high (population boom).
The urban transition: shift from a mostly rural to a mainly urban population.
The economic transition: change from an economy driven first by farming, then by manufacturing and last by services to the “new economy” which today aims at more sustainability using digital innovation.
The energy transition: progressively giving up fossil fuel and use clean, renewable energies to decarbonise activities.
The environmental transition: transformations to prevent, limit or remedy environmental change and limit its impact.
The agricultural transition: shift from subsistence to intensive, industrial farming and then more sustainable practices like organic farming.
The tourist transition: progress towards a more democratised and sustainable tourism.

Development
globalisation: massive economic & human flows interconnecting the world.
a developed country: with a high income (GDP or Gross Domestic Product which measures the standard of living), and human development (HDI or Human Development Index which measures the quality of life).
a developing country: with a medium or low income (GDP) and human development (HDI).
an emerging country: with a strong economic growth not yet equally shared with all the population. The most powerful emerging countries are the BRICSAM : Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa & Mexico.
sustainable development: shared economic growth + social welfare + environmental conservation.
unsustainable development: economic crisis + social inequality + environmental damage.

Mobility
mobility: move from one's home to a new location. Called migration if it's to settle permanently or temporarily.
rural-urban migration: inflow of rural population to cities where they live in degraded housing (slums).
push factor: negative reason why people want to leave the place they live in.
pull factor: positive reason why people are attracted to a new place they want to settle in.
multicultural society: cosmopolitan society, with many different ethnic communities living side by side.

Environment
climate change: global warming and extreme weather events (heat wave, drought, storm surge) due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by human activity.
pressure on resources: natural resources strained by unsustainable practices (pollution, waste or overuse) as opposed to their conservation (protecting, saving or recycling them).
sustainable tourism, green or ecotourism: supporting environmental conservation, social development, and local economies.