A CHANGING WORLD • • The notions

2E-G Notions flow chart

Definitions of key notions & vocabulary

the demographic transition: change from a high to a low natality and mortality with a population boom (high population growth).
the urban transition: shift from a mostly rural to a mainly urban population.
the economic transition: change from an economy driven first by farming, then by manufacturing and last by services.
the energy transition: giving up fossil fuel and use clean, renewable energies to decarbonise activities.
the environmental transition: reducing environmental damage with new ways of producing and consuming.
the agricultural transition: shift from subsistence to industrial farming and then more sustainable practices like organic farming.
the tourist transition: progress towards a more democratised and sustainable tourism.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): measures the standard of living.
Human Development Index (HDI): measures the quality of life.
a developed country: with a high income (GDP) and human development (HDI).
a developing country: with a medium or low income (GDP) and human development (HDI).
an emerging country: a developing country with a strong economic growth but a medium HDI. The most powerful are the BRICSAM: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa & Mexico.
sustainable development: shared economic growth + social welfare + environmental protection.
unsustainable development: economic crisis + social inequality + environmental damage.

globalisation: massive economic, human & information flows interconnecting the world.
mobility: move to a new location for a visit (tourist) or to settle (migrant).
rural-urban migration: rural population moving to cities where they live in degraded housing (slums).
push factor: negative reason why people want to leave a place.
pull factor: positive reason why people are attracted to a place.
multicultural society: cosmopolitan society, with many different ethnic communities living side by side.

climate change: extreme weather driven by global warming due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activity.
pressure on resources: natural resources strained by damaging practices (pollution, waste or overuse).
green or ecotourism: supporting environmental conservation, social inclusion and local economies, so sustainable.