INTRODUCTION: From deprivation to rebranding

I. The problem: deprivation

1. Deprivation: the inner city crisis
Where? In the inner-city (Harlem) = in the city centre
What? Economic poverty (income, jobs), social exclusion (education, health, social housing); derelict brownfield sites (previously used for industrial or commercial purposes) in isolated, segregated neighbourhoods
=> low standard of living & low quality of life
Why? economic shift, change: decline of manufacturing economy and growth of service(s) economy
Who? Multicultural, multiethnic low-income groups

2. The consequences of the inner city crisis
Urban sprawl: middle/high-income groups move to accessible well-connected greenfield sites = suburbanisation inside the city & counterurbanisation to outside commuter/dormitory towns
=> More mobility: commuting (daily weekday trip home-workplace) & congestion (road traffic jams + overcrowded public transport) => pollution & stress

II. The solution: rebranding

1. What rebranding consists in
Regenerating: to redevelop the city, that is to say build or renovate housing, workspaces, leisure facilities etc so as to improve and densify the area, and absorb population growth
Re-imaging: to “sell”, to promote a new positive image, using advertising, marketing (I love NY)

2. Its goal: a more attractive city
More sustainability: more self-contained community (live & work in the same area)
- Economic growth: boosted new economy based on high-end services and high-tech clusters (association of innovative industry & research institutions)
+ Social inclusion: mixed housing with amenities (public community services (healthcare, schools) and retail & leisure facilities)
+ Green city: parks, clean transport (tram, tube, rail links)
Better connectivity: more public transport services to improve accessibility and facilitate people’s mobility.
=> A more attractive city for investors, businesspeople, tourists and residents due to gentrification = middle and then high income groups back to the regenerated inner-city causing housing prices to rise
=> Double impact
(-) a more polarised inner city with divide between gentrified/deprived communities => lower and middle income groups displaced to outer city
But (+) a more powerful city = global city: transport hub with powerful high-end services & high-tech economy, world political and cultural influence