CS3 - London Docklands: a targeted regeneration (1981-2001)
Was London’s Docklands regeneration sustainable?

1. An economic success
• A new economy:
From crisis, depression: derelict brownfield site with port and industries, due to declining manufacturing economy
To prosperity, growth: new activities in newly-built towers: rise of service economy with more jobs in finance, insurance & restaurants, hotels
=> Better standard of living
• A better connectivity:
A central but isolated neighbourhood: 1 congested road, 1 bus service, no direct rail and tube links => barrier to work & negative image
Regeneration to improve connectivity & accessibility: new roads, rail and underground links, and new City airport for business travel
+ Re-imaging to attract investors & residents

2. But unshared social and environmental benefits
• A much needed regeneration:
A deprived & isolated neighbourhood: low-income groups in high-rise housing, without amenities & green spaces (wasteland) and no connectivity to work.
• Social divide:
Regeneration => gentrification with less social housing => housing prices rose => unaffordable for local low-income groups despite planners efforts => resistance and forced suburbanisation of original population
=> middle-class inner city, lower-class outer London
• Super-gentrification now:
Successful regeneration & re-imaging: luxury housing (industrial-style loft) in well-connected neighbourhood with a splendid environment (next to and view on the Thames)
=> Social polarisation: upper class supergentrification => forced middle class urban sprawl to more affordable housing
=> unsustainable