CS1 - Inner London: crisis in a capital city
What are the aspects and effects of the inner city crisis in London?

1. Hackney’s regeneration
• Better social housing:
From deprivation with degraded social housing (towers and blocks, high crime and isolation): low quality of life
To regeneration building small houses and green streets = with better affordable social housing and amenities for low-income groups who were not displaced, who could stay.
• But gentrification:
Most jobs are high-income for highly skilled workers with a good standard of living who can afford expensive renovated housing => prices increased
Silicon Roundabout, the high-tech digital cluster for start-ups, attracted by cheap housing is now less successful.
=> Polarisation & tensions
A cosmopolitan neighbourhood (60% White, 25% Black, 10% Asian) without racial tensions
But socio-economic polarisation, divide (education, employment) and so tensions between deprived and gentrified populations => riots.

2. Urban sprawl, a consequence of inner city crisis
• Urban sprawl:
Less middle-class affordable housing in Greater (inner + outer) London
=> Urban sprawl: no suburbanisation but direct counterurbanisation over the Green Belt as lower housing + commuting costs
=> congestion
• A changing mobility:
Commuting mostly by car in Outer London & by rail in Inner London
=> More inner London public transport services (bus, rail & tube), more cycling thanks to ‘Boris’ bikes (2010 self-service cycle hire) and less cars due to Central London congestion charge (2003) => less pollution
• But persistent problems:
Surface congestion: rail and road (cars and buses) with lower speeds in Greater London => enviro pollution .
+ Expensive public transport => unaffordable for lower-income groups => economic barrier to work
=> Need for self-contained non-commuting communities