The Industrial Age 1815-1914 • • THE NOTIONS

The facts

1E History fact flow chart

Definitions of key notions & vocabulary

domestic system / cottage industry: small scale hand home-made production.
Industrial Revolution: shift from hand home-made to mass factory production.
factory system: production on a large scale in a single centralized location.
1st Industrial Revolution: see flow chart.
2nd Industrial Revolution: see flow chart.
assembly line: assembling parts into a finished product is broken down into a series of small, simple tasks.
industrialisation: shift from an economy based on farming to one driven by manufacturing. (2E-G economic transition)

Globalisation (def 2E-G)
migration: movement of people from one place to settle permanently in a new location. (2E-G mobility)
push factor: negative reason why people want to leave a place. (2E-G)
pull factor: positive reason why people are attracted to a place. (2E-G)
territorial expansion: see flow chart.
colonisation: conquering & controlling colonies (def 2E-H) to form an empire.
colonialism: doctrine aiming at justifying colonisation.
imperialism: the will to expand a country’s power, domination over another people, territory.
the white man’s burden (UK), manifest destiny (USA): the duty, mission of the British/Americans to bring progress to, “civilize” other people considered as inferior.

agrarian / agricultural revolution: see flow chart.
demographic transition: shift from a high to a low mortality and natality with a population boom. (2E-G)
rural-urban migration: inflow of rural population to cities where they lived in degraded housing. (2E-G)
urbanisation: increasing concentration of population in cities.
urban transition: shift from a mostly rural to a mainly urban population. (2E-G)
Labour living in urban squalor: see flow chart.
Capital living in urban spendour: see flow chart.

reform movement: movement to improve social well-being or political rights by passing laws reducing abuse, inequality.
trade union (UK), labour union (US): organization of workers who unite to protect their rights from abusive practices by their employer.
strike: if workers refuse to work, to improve poor working conditions, low wages.
democratisation: the transition to a more democratic political regime, to a full democracy (def in 2E-H) by, for example, extending the franchise.
franchise: the right to vote ; can be restricted or universal -excluding or including citizens because or regardless of gender,