GLOBAL CITIES• • The notions


Definitions of key notions & vocabulary

global city: powerful command and control centre with a worldwide political, economic and cultural influence/reach/outreach.
globalisation current stage: digital and financial globalisation boosting high-end IT, financial & business services. (+2E-G &1E-H def)
Brexit: UK’s decision to leave the EU based on the June 2016 referendum and effective in January 2021. The UK voted to leave by 51.9% but London voted to remain by 59.9%.

hub: a focal network node attracting inflows and producing outflows.
accessibility: fast, multimodal transport services to facilitate trade and mobility.
mobility: move from one’s home to a new location. Called migration if it’s to settle permanently or temporarily (migrants). Called commuting: when it’s a daily trip from home to one’s workplace (commuters).

Urban production space
business district (UK) / central business district (US): central urban hub concentrating high value-added financial and commercial activities. The newest have a specific skyline (skyscrapers).
cluster: concentration of interconnected high-tech/creative/digital businesses and associated education/research institutions.
TNC, MNC: trans/multinational corporation/company operating internationally.
GAFAM, Big Five or Big Tech: Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon & Microsoft, the top 5 IT corporations.
digital or I(C)T: information (& communication) technology.

Urban policy and trend
urban marketing: promoting a positive image using advertising to increase soft power: the ability to influence using attraction rather than force or coercion.
urban renewal or regeneration (UK)/redevelopment (US): build or renovate housing, workspaces, leisure & transport facilities etc... to improve and densify an area.
urban sprawl: the spreading of suburban developments (such as houses and shopping centres) on undeveloped land in the (rural) urban fringe.

Urban challenges
liveability: quality of life, day-to-day living conditions including housing, health-care, education, culture, environment and transport.
deprivation: economic poverty (income, jobs), social inequality (education, health, housing) and environmental dereliction (degraded cityscape).
gentrification: higher income groups moving to attractive areas and displacing lower income groups. Called super-gentrification if involving the global super-rich investing in a city.
polarised city: city fragmented into exclusive neighbourhoods based on income and/or ethnicity. The opposite of an inclusive city.
congestion: a situation in which a place is too blocked (road) or crowded (city-centre, public transport), causing difficulties.

2E notions
Developed/developing/emerging country, sustainable/unsustainable development, push/pull factor, multicultural society, climate change, economic transition to knowledge-based services (diagram), energy/tourist transition. “Political” buildings.